Moving Picture Experts Group. Standards for compressing video for recording on discs, hard drives, and the Internet.
Moving Picture Experts Group; an industry standard for compressing video and audio. This compressed video is playable by the software; QuickTime and several other applications.
(MPEG-1) A video compression standard set by the Moving Picture Experts Group. Itinvolves changing only those elements of a video image that actually change from frame to frame and leaving everything else in the image the same.
A group of standards for encoding and compressing audiovisual information such as movies, video, and music. MPEG compression is as high as 200:1 for low-motion video of VHS quality, and broadcast quality can be achieved at 6 Mbit\/s. Audio is supported at rates from 32 kbit\/s to 384 kbit\/s for up to two stereo channels.
Motion Picture Expert Group
Moving Picture Experts Group
The Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) is a working group of experts that was formed by ISO and IEC to set standards for audio and video compression and transmission. It was established in 1988 by the initiative of Hiroshi Yasuda (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone) and Leonardo Chiariglione, who has been from the beginning the Chairman of the group. The first MPEG meeting was in May 1988 in Ottawa, Canada. As of late 2005, MPEG has grown to include approximately 350 members per meeting from various industries, universities, and research institutions. MPEG's official designation is ISO\/IEC JTC1\/SC29 WG11 - Coding of moving pictures and audio (ISO\/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1, Subcommittee 29, Working Group 11).
Compression methodology
The MPEG compression methodology is considered asymmetric as the encoder is more complex than the decoder. The encoder needs to be algorithmic or adaptive whereas the decoder is 'dumb' and carries out fixed actions. This is considered advantageous in applications such as broadcasting where the number of expensive complex encoders is small but the number of simple inexpensive decoders is large. The MPEG's (ISO's) approach to standardization is novel, because it is not the encoder that is standardized, but the way a decoder interprets the bitstream. A decoder that can successfully interpret the bitstream is said to be compliant. The advantage of standardizing the decoder is that over time encoding algorithms can improve, yet compliant decoders continue to function with them. The MPEG standards give very little information regarding structure and operation of the encoder and implementers can supply encoders using proprietary algorithms. This gives scope for competition between different encoder designs, which means better designs, can evolve and users have greater choice, because encoders of different levels of cost and complexity can exist, yet a compliant decoder operates with all of them.
MPEG also standardizes the protocol and syntax under which it is possible to combine or multiplex audio data with video data to produce a digital equivalent of a television program. Many such programs can be multiplexed and MPEG defines the way such multiplexes can be created and transported. The definitions include the metadata used by decoders to demultiplex correctly.
The MPEG standards consist of different Parts. Each part covers a certain aspect of the whole specification. The standards also specify Profiles and Levels. Profiles are intended to define a set of tools that are available, and Levels define the range of appropriate values for the properties associated with them. Some of the approved MPEG standards were revised by later amendments and\/or new editions. MPEG has standardized the following compression formats and ancillary standards:
MPEG-1 (1993): Coding of moving pictures and associated audio for digital storage media at up to about 1,5 Mbit\/s (ISO\/IEC 11172). The first MPEG compression standard for audio and video. It is commonly limited to about 1.5 Mbit\/s although the specification is capable of much higher bit rates. It was basically designed to allow moving pictures and sound to be encoded into the bitrate of a Compact Disc. It is used on Video CD, SVCD and can be used for low-quality video on DVD Video. It was used in digital satellite\/cable TV services before MPEG-2 became widespread. To meet the low bit requirement, MPEG-1 downsamples the images, as well as uses picture rates of only 24–30 Hz, resulting in a moderate quality. It includes the popular MPEG-1 Audio Layer III (MP3) audio compression format.
MPEG-2 (1995): Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information (ISO\/IEC 13818). Transport, video and audio standards for broadcast-quality television. MPEG-2 standard was considerably broader in scope and of wider appeal – supporting interlacing and high definition. MPEG-2 is considered important because it has been chosen as the compression scheme for over-the-air digital television ATSC, DVB and ISDB, digital satellite TV services like Dish Network, digital cable television signals, SVCD and DVD Video. It is also used on Blu-ray Discs, but these normally use MPEG-4 Part 10 or SMPTE VC-1 for high-definition content.
MPEG-3: MPEG-3 dealt with standardizing scalable and multi-resolution compression and was intended for HDTV compression but was found to be redundant and was merged with MPEG-2, as a result there is no MPEG-3 standard. MPEG-3 is not to be confused with MP3, which is MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3.
MPEG-4 (1998): Coding of audio-visual objects. (ISO\/IEC 14496) MPEG-4 uses further coding tools with additional complexity to achieve higher compression factors than MPEG-2. In addition to more efficient coding of video, MPEG-4 moves closer to computer graphics applications. In more complex profiles, the MPEG-4 decoder effectively becomes a rendering processor and the compressed bitstream describes three-dimensional shapes and surface texture. MPEG-4 supports Intellectual Property Management and Protection (IPMP), which provides the facility to use proprietary technologies to manage and protect content like digital rights management. It also supports MPEG-J, a fully programmatic solution for creation of custom interactive multimedia applications (Java application environment with a Java API) and many other features. Several new higher-efficiency video standards (newer than MPEG-2 Video) are included, notably:
MPEG-4 Part 2 (or Simple and Advanced Simple Profile) and
MPEG-4 AVC (or MPEG-4 Part 10 or H.264). MPEG-4 AVC may be used on HD DVD and Blu-ray Discs, along with VC-1 and MPEG-2.
In addition, the following standards, while not sequential advances to the video encoding standard as with MPEG-1 through MPEG-4, are referred to by similar notation:
MPEG-7 (2002): Multimedia content description interface. (ISO\/IEC 15938)
MPEG-21 (2001): Multimedia framework (MPEG-21). (ISO\/IEC 21000) MPEG describes this standard as a multimedia framework and provides for intellectual property management and protection.
Moreover, more recently than other standards above, MPEG has started following international standards; each of the standards holds multiple MPEG technologies for a way of application. (For example, MPEG-A includes a number of technologies on multimedia application format.)
MPEG-A (2007): Multimedia application format (MPEG-A). (ISO\/IEC 23000) (e.g., Purpose for multimedia application formats, MPEG music player application format, MPEG photo player application format and others)
MPEG-B (2006): MPEG systems technologies. (ISO\/IEC 23001) (e.g., Binary MPEG format for XML, Fragment Request Units, Bitstream Syntax Description Language (BSDL) and others)
MPEG-C (2006): MPEG video technologies. (ISO\/IEC 23002) (e.g., Accuracy requirements for implementation of integer-output 8x8 inverse discrete cosine transform and others)
MPEG-D (2007): MPEG audio technologies. (ISO\/IEC 23003) (e.g., MPEG Surround, SAOC-Spatial Audio Object Coding and USAC-Unified Speech and Audio Coding)
MPEG-E (2007): Multimedia Middleware. (ISO\/IEC 23004) (a.k.a. M3W) (e.g., Architecture, Multimedia application programming interface (API), Component model and others)
Supplemental media technologies (2008). (ISO\/IEC 29116) Part 1: Media streaming application format protocols will be revised in MPEG-M Part 4 - MPEG extensible middleware (MXM) protocols.
MPEG-V (2011): Media context and control. (ISO\/IEC 23005) (a.k.a. Information exchange with Virtual Worlds) (e.g., Avatar characteristics, Sensor information, Architecture and others)
MPEG-M (2010): MPEG eXtensible Middleware (MXM). (ISO\/IEC 23006) (e.g., MXM architecture and technologies, API, MPEG extensible middleware (MXM) protocols)
MPEG-U (2010): Rich media user interfaces. (ISO\/IEC 23007) (e.g., Widgets)

Audio and video glossary. 2014.

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